Preparing Chemical Solutions, Reagents, and Buffers

The ability to prepare accurate solutions, reagents, and buffers will affect the outcome, and potential safety, of many laboratory procedures.  The links below are offered to help you understand how to prepare these substances, and include easy to use online calculators.

Sigma-Aldrich Acid & Base Normality and Molarity Calculator (used to prepare an acid or base solution of specified molarity (M) or normality (N) from a concentrated acid or base solution)

Sigma-Aldrich Mass Molarity Calculator (used to prepare a solution from a solid reagent)

Sigma-Aldrich Dilution Calculator (used to dilute a solution of known molarity)

Flinn Laboratory Solution Guide (includes the basic concepts & equations, tips for preparing solutions, and over 300 recipes of common chemical, biological, & histological solutions)

Carolina Solution Preparation Guide (includes a helpful video that demonstrates proper mixing technique, including the importance of using a volumetric flask for accuracy)

Carolina’s Solution Preparation Manual (similar to Flinn; includes equations, tips for preparing solutions, and over 300 recipes of common chemical, biological, & histological solutions)